Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus that has been thought of as a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been stated that various extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, like Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and a few bioactive components of nattokinase, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for centuries, studies uncovering its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the types of extractions or components being comfrimed to get anti-aging are far too few in contrast to the larger quantities of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to put the earth for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect as well as its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is actually a basidiomycete white rot fungus popularly known as “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was first attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” around 100 BC, and observed to promote health, increase vigor and vitality in addition to prolong lifespan. The traditional Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum being an herbal medicine that may help people to achieve the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum is definitely used being a folk medicine for improving health and is the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum showed that it contains 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The primary active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are found in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are numerous extractions of Coriolus Versicolor Extract as a result of specific extracting procedures used during production and the part of plant it gets from. Regarding for the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the key Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum and also the extract from your mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is practically always along with a decline in bodily physiological function, leading to a heightened susceptibility to age-related disorders. It is an inevitable physiological process, nevertheless the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated after many decades. One of the numerous theories associated with aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stick out probably the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates as being a function of age, bringing about disruption from the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination resulting in oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues such as the brain, heart and skeleton muscle are definitely more vunerable to aging, compared with other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are essential inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is dependent on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production for an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional changes in the myocardium, like myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . Within the brain, the accumulation of free-radicals and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity damage cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the onset of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, among others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging can also be closely related to bringing about structural and functional defects inside the immunity mechanism. Immunological dysfunction could be the reason behind the improved susceptibility from the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, which can be commonly observed in seniors.
Gradual lack of cognition is probably the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is the main cause of cognitive deficits and can be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the other hand, age-associated cognitive deficits tend not to mean neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq due to diseases. The demise of neurons caused by the activation of cell death programs is involved in the process of age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been utilized as being an elixir for thousands of years, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are only the tip in the iceberg. Whether Cistanche Extract Powder exerts an anti-aging effect remains a mystery. Therefore, this review aims to lay the floor for fully elucidating the possible mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to promote its clinical application as an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related outcomes of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are obtained from various parts of Ganoderma lucidum.