Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
This is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into a power energy.
Kinds of transducer:
The two main types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Sensor is really a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical energy on its own. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the most useful examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (like quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it produces an electric powered charge and, when an electric powered field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any type of piezo mechanism may be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and therefore can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker spanning a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are employed to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based on piezoelectrics. In this case, the Miniature Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while decreasing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally utilized to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to generate a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in electricity and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when innovative performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to provide the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the best amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it will cause. In case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system with a counter mass can be integrated and driven with a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out as well as the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is often used in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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